So it has come to pass that the W3C has decided to take the WHATWG's HTML5 on board. It will form the basis of the W3C's HTML5. The goal is to have a public draft by June - yes, this year. Given that the spec now has to endure the full process of the W3C we'll see how that goes.

Anyway, this got me to thinking: what do I really want from a new markup specification? I've talked about this before but I realised that there's a difference between what I want and what I actually hope for :)

Ultimately it comes down to quite a small subset of the overall picture - the things I genuinely wish for in daily life. There are a few elements I'd like to see created or simply supported consistently by browsers.


These are the basics, the minimum additions to fill in some blanks left by HTML 4.01.

  • An extensible, contextual heading/section system
  • A way to associate a CAPTION (or LABEL) with images and lists
  • Footnotes (which are really endnotes on the web)

It's a short list, since the reality is that the lack of decent CSS support impacts on my daily life far more than the limitations of markup. Frankly most developers out there still haven't mastered the semantics of HTML 4.01 so it's not like adding more elements will stop people making tag soup.

Meanwhile, semantics geeks like me will keep searching for the secrets of semantic alchemy with compounds and microformats. Where the markup is deficient we have ways of adding more meaning.

Although this is not an addition to a spec... I'd like to see real support for OBJECT so (amongst other things) we can replace images with the complex explanatory content required for complex graphics. Since certain popular browsers can't cope with this element, we still essentially don't have it.


On the topic of headings, HTML5 does not do what I want since it still relies on H1-H6. I gather the HEADER element is meant to do some kind of section marking but frankly on a first reading it doesn't make a heck of a lot of sense. It certainly doesn't introduce any obvious practical benefit.

XHTML2's H and SECTION system is exactly what I want. I regularly wish I could write a code fragment with a heading, without having to know the heading rank. With the H/SECTION system, I could just define the fragment as a section and know that the heading rank will be sorted out in-situ.

If you maintain a small, stable site, headings may not have ever been an issue. But if you have ever maintained the code base for a very large site, you're probably nodding your head ;)

Even for a small blog headings are a problem. In your average blog the top two heading ranks are probably handled by the site template and CMS; but subheadings in actual posts have to be written in directly with heading tags. So you're probably inserting H3 tags right into your content. Too bad if you later want to change the post pages to have the post title as the H1 - then you'd have a jump from H1 to H3. You either have to stick with the original structure; or you have what I consider an invalid heading rank jump.

Consider the same blog, with H/SECTION... you can adjust the structure around the post as much as you like - it doesn't matter. The sections and corresponding heading ranks take care of themselves.

Headings aren't glamorous. They're not uber-funky AJAX-friendly form inputs which will sparkle in the sun and inspire dancing in the street. They are bread and butter elements which we use every day. HTML has never made them easy to work with, so like it or not they would be a killer app for a markup spec.


In addition to what I do want, I think it's important to think about what a spec excludes. I think it's high time for specs to stop weakly deprecating things and flat-out remove them. I'd kill off the semantically neutral and visual-design-based elements - FONT, B, I, S, U etc... and definitely no get-out-responsibility-free cards for WYSIWYG editors!

The spec should just have them treated and rendered the same as SPAN. They're all semantically meaningless and can be replaced either with CSS or semantically-meaningful elements.

I should note that by my reading, WHATWG's HTML5 deals with B and I by creating semantic meaning for them. While that approach has some merit, I doubt the majority of developers will alter their usage according to the new semantics so those elements' usage will just be incorrect for new reasons. If everyone out there was to adopt the new semantics, I'd probably support the approach :)

wish list

These are things I want, but in the balance of things they're not the first things I'd argue to have included. That's the basics list :)

  • A dedicated caption or group label for sets of radio buttons - FIELDSET and LEGEND don't really work for long descriptions.
  • A drag-and-drop form input which is also keyboard accessible - keystroke/click to pick and keystroke/click to drop. Drag and drop is a useful paradigm but the possible solutions at the moment are not much good for keyboard or screen reader users.
  • An element to enclose extra info for assistive technology users, something a little like NOSCRIPT. Having to use CSS tricks to hide assistive content creates a clash between content and style; not to mention putting your content at risk of Google blacklisting. An element named something like ASSIST could be ignored by search engines and enabled by assistive tech like screen readers. [Note - this is a pretty sketchy idea, no doubt there are all sorts of practical issues. I'm not saying it's perfect. It's just that we need some legit way to give extra info to users who need it, without getting blacklisted from Google. A dedicated element might be the way to go - although proper support for OBJECT would help an awful lot with accessibility it still won't help the search engine issues.]

Another short list. I wouldn't say no to specific elements for navigation, but I don't think they would really fix problems. Accessibility basics give way to usability issues - if your navigation is hard to distinguish from content, it's more of a usability issue than a markup issue.

HTML5 has elements for navigation, document content, header, footer etc... I'm not a huge fan of the naming system but I can see the potential benefits. Still, such elements aren't really priorities for me. I'm still going to give users skip links and Google has no plan to reward semantics anyway. If - and it's an if - screen readers were to make use of these new semantic elements then I'd probably use them. But screen readers lag behind and users often can't afford the latest versions anyway, so we're still going to be using skip links anyway.

all i want for christmas...

So basically what I want from a new spec is a few basics that were missed the last time around. I'm not actually hanging out for bells and whistles, although HTML 5 seems full of them and no doubt we'll happily use them.

Has reality lowered my expectations? Perhaps. Will I be glad of some kind of update - something, anything - after all these years? Almost certainly. Remember it has been more than seven years since XHTML 1.0 became a recommendation. That's 70 web years - a long time between updates.

After all that time it seems that most developers had lost faith in the W3C. Taking on HTML 5 seems like the only rational way forward and it was probably the only thing the W3C could do to regain a little bit of relevance in the world of markup. The browser makers certainly seemed to have jumped ship to WHATWG's HTML 5, or were quietly preparing to do so.

When I first heard of the WHATWG I thought it was unnecessary - maybe even a little irresponsible - to break away from the W3C. Many years later I'm glad they did.

So anyway with a June deadline, here's hoping we have a new HTML spec in time for Christmas. Santa... I'll be a good boy, I promise.